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Bio Fuel

 The first fuel used by human beings to light their homes and cook their food was biomass fuel.  It was (and still is) called wood.  Cavemen built their campfires with it.  Even petroleum is, in fact, a bio-fuel since it was formed by the decay of organic matter over long periods of time.   We have always used bio-fuels to heat our homes, cook our food and, after the twentieth century, power our automobiles, our trucks, our ships, our planes, and every other type of engine with which we enhance our lives.  Electricity is indirectly a bio-fuel since it is produced by, with the exception of nuclear power, the burning of coal or oil. 

 The reasons oil has become our principal source of fuel has been its overwhelming abundance, its easy accessibility, and, relative to other types of fuel, its low cost.  However, although oil remains abundant, it is rapidly becoming more difficult to find and its cost has increased substantially.  Other types of bio-fuels are now cost-effective relative to oil.

 BioConcepts is in the process of constructing two types of bio-fuel manufacturing facilities, each of which has its own distinct set of benefits and costs, but both of which share one common advantage over oil.  Instead of searching for oil in faraway places, transporting it to processing facilities in the United States, and then transporting the final product to facilities close to consumers, BioConcepts is building its manufacturing and processing plants near America's transportation grids -- its highways, airports and shipyards.

 BioConcepts has determined two types of facilities, based upon the type of material to be processed into fuel, possess the requisite qualities necessary to achieve commercial yields of bio-fuel.  Although the thrust of our initial efforts is to supply diesel fuel to America's transportation industry, and to a lesser extent aviation fuel to the airline industry, the manufacturing processes eventually will produce automobile fuel.

 Municipal Solid Waste

 Municipal Solid Waste is the trash created by people living their daily lives, in both homes and businesses.  The waste consists of everything from paper, plastic, glass, tin and aluminum cans, to soaps, greases and various types of cooking oils.

 Traditionally this waste material has been collected by municipalities and transported to landfills where it is dumped and left undisturbed until the landfill is full, at which point the cities locate another landfill site and begin the process anew.

 BioConcepts contracts with municipalities to obtain all or a portion of the city's MSW (depending on the size of the city involved) which the municipalities transport to BioConcept's facility.

 Once the MSW has been delivered to BioConcepts, our facility sorts the material into holding tanks containing ingredients that will be processed into fuel and material that will be utilized for other purposes.  In the past the sorting process was one of the most difficult and costly steps in the procedure, but modern equipment has not only reduced the effort necessary to sort the material but has permitted the use of much more of the MSW than was previously utilized.

 Once the sorting is complete, the usable MSW is processed into fuel using a gasification technology similar, in concept, to the one used by oil refiners for cracking raw oil into various grades of fuel.

 The gasification technology employed by BioConcepts is manufactured by General Electric and a version of it is being used extensively in China and Indonesia.

 The Processing of MSW

 A hydrocarbon feedstock is injected with oxygen and steam into a high temperature pressurized reactor until the chemical bonds of the feedstock are broken. The resulting reaction produces a gas called syngas. The syngas is then cleansed to remove impurities such as sulfur, mercury, particulates, and trace minerals. (Carbon dioxide can also be removed at this stage.) The clean syngas is then used to make either a single product such as fertilizer or multiple products such as hydrogen, steam, and electric power.

 Gasification is a manufacturing process that converts carbon-containing materials, such as coal, petcoke, biomass, or various wastes to a syngas which can then be used to produce electric power, valuable products, such as chemicals, fertilizers, substitute natural gas, hydrogen, steam, and transportation fuels.

 The core of the gasification system is the gasifier, a pressurized vessel where the feed material reacts with oxygen (or air) and steam at high temperatures. There are several basic gasifier designs, distinguished by the use of wet or dry feed, the use of air or oxygen, the reactor’s flow direction (up-flow, downflow, or circulating), and the gas cooling process. Currently, gasifiers are capable of handling up to 3,000 tons/day of feedstock throughput and this will increase in the near future. After being ground into very small  particles — or fed directly (if a gas or liquid) — the feedstock is injected into the gasifier, along with a controlled amount of air or oxygen and steam. Temperatures in a gasifier range from 1,400-2,800 degrees Fahrenheit. The heat and pressure inside the gasifier break apart the chemical bonds of the feedstock, forming syngas. The syngas consists primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and, depending upon the specific gasification technology, smaller quantities of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and water vapor. Syngas can be combusted to produce electric power and steam or used as a building block for a variety of chemicals and fuels. Syngas generally has a heating value of 250-300 Btu/scf, compared to natural gas at approximately 1,000 BTU/scf. Typically, 70–85% of the carbon in the feedstock is converted into the syngas. The ratio of carbon monoxide to hydrogen depends in part upon the hydrogen and carbon content of the feedstock and the type of gasifier used. 

                                                                                   Gas Clean-Up

The raw syngas produced in the gasifier contains trace levels of impurities that must be removed prior to its ultimate use. After the gas is cooled, the trace minerals, particulates, sulfur, mercury, and unconverted carbon are removed to very low levels using commercially proven cleaning processes common to the chemical and refining industries.

For feeds (such as coal) containing mercury, more than 95% of the mercury can be removed from the syngas using relatively small and commercially available activated carbon beds. Co2 Carbon dioxide (CO2) can also be removed at the gas cleanup stage using a number of commercial technologies. In fact, CO2 is routinely removed with a commercially proven process in ammonia and hydrogen manufacturing plants. Ammonia plants already capture approximately 90% of the CO2 and methanol plants capture approximately 70%.


Most solid and liquid feed gasifiers produce a glass-like byproduct called slag, which is non-hazardous and can be used in roadbed construction or in roofing materials. Also, in most gasification plants, more than 99% of the sulfur is removed and recovered either as elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid.

Which Industries Use Gasification ?

 Gasification has been used in the chemical, refining, and fertilizer industries for more than 50 years and by the electric power industry for more than 35 years. Currently, there are more than 140 gasification plants — with more than 420 gasifiers — operating worldwide. Nineteen of those gasification plants are located in the United States.

 The use of gasification is expanding. For example, there are several gasification projects under development to provide steam and hydrogen for synthetic crude upgrading in the oil sands industry in Canada. In addition, the paper industry is exploring how gasification can be used to make their operations more efficient and reduce waste streams.

 Gasification Applications and Products

 Hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the major components of syngas, are the basic building blocks of a number of other products, such as chemicals and fertilizers. In addition, a gasification plant can be designed to produce more than one type of end product.

 Tampa Electric's Polk Station

The Polk Power Station near Mulberry, Florida, is the Nation's first "greenfield" (built as a brand new plant) commercial gasification combined cycle power station.

Capable of generating 313 megawatts of electricity - 250 megawatts of which are supplied to the electric grid - the power plant is one of the world's cleanest. The plant's gas cleaning technology removes more than 98 percent of the sulfur in coal, converting it to a commercial product. Nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by more than 90 percent.

    The Wabash River Repowering Project  


The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project is the first full-size commercial gasification-combined cycle plant built in the United States. Located outside West Terre Haute, Indiana, the plant started full operations in November 1995.

The plant can generate 292 megawatts of electricity - 262 megawatts of which are supplied to the electric grid - making it one of the world's largest single train gasification combined cycle plants operating commercially.

 The processes used at these electrical generation facilities are the same processes used to manufacture the bio-fuels at the Bio-concepts MSW plant operations.

 In short, not only is MSW fuel technically feasible in commercial quantities, but its production and use reduces the amount of land required for landfills and the attendant environmental risks associated with landfills. 

 MSW is a truly home-grown and steady supply of relatively inexpensive and environmentally amicable material which can be processed into fuel to meet our energy needs.  Moreover, America does not have to drill for MSW nor must we import it from unstable or hostile lands abroad. 


 There are a number of different crops which can be processed into bio-fuel -- corn, sugarcane, soybeans, beets, and a variety of different grasses.  The country of Brazil, for example, has become nearly petroleum independent by the production of fuel made from sugarcane.  One drawback to the use of food crops for fuel is that its use has, in some cases, increased the price of food consumed by people, a major problem in underdeveloped countries where per capita income is low.

 Algae, on the other hand, is rarely used as food; indeed, the most publicized aspect of algae in recent years has been its effect in creating ocean hypoxia, or dead zones, where fish and other aquatic animals are unable to survive because the algae has removed most of the oxygen from the water.  Most people view algae as nothing more than useless pond scrum and, until recently, that view was fairly accurate.

 Less well known is the capability of certain types of algae to be processed into diesel fuel.  In fact, algae is theoretically capable of filling all of America's needs for diesel fuel -- for all of our trucks, our machinery, our heating and our other diesel fuel requirements -- for substantially less than it now costs to turn petroleum into diesel fuel.  Figure 1 illustrates the astonishing oil feedstock yields of algae versus other types of bio-feedstocks.


 In addition to pond-based algae production, BioConcepts employs a bioreactor-based technology.

 The tubes are connected to a pumping station where two pumps regulate nutrient and acidity levels in the system. CO2 is fed to the algae along with the other nutrients. The results being a higher oil content yield. A water pump maintains a gentle circulation of water and algae through the photobioreactor. A harvest pump moves fluid to a filter system that removes the algae for processing.


 Research conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program from the 1970s to the 1990s showed that many species of algae had the potential to produce sufficient quantities of oil to be economical feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, the most efficient method of raising algae—in open, racetrack-style ponds—was prone to contamination from undesirable algae species, and a lot of water was wasted through evaporation. Closed systems called photobioreactors didn’t have the contamination and evaporation problem.

The phenomenal yields of algae is one of the reasons why BioConcepts decided to invest heavily in algae-based diesel fuel facilities.  Relatively modest-sized pond-based plants can be constructed in locations near to the end users of the fuel -- truck stops, for example -- reducing the need for large transportation equipment and expenses.

 Even more impressive, bioreactor-based facilities can be based virtually anywhere there is sufficient sunlight, even in cold climates, even in tall buildings. Furthermore, locating these photo-bio-reactors at or near existing coal fired power plants or other CO2 producing industries where the CO2 can be captured and fed to the algae prevents the carbon from further contaminating the atmosphere and saves that industry from carbon fines and fees creating carbon credits.

 MSW and algae are, in short, a realistic and environmentally beneficial answer to America's dependency on foreign oil.  MSW and algae fuels can be produced for less than the present and incredible cost of petroleum-based fuel.  And MSW and algae help to reduce the degradation of our environment and our having to choose whether we use our corn or soybeans or sugarbeets for food or fuel.

 As an added bonus the CO2 is captured from the MSW process and fed to the algae plant to increase the oil yield from the algae.


 BioConcepts is in the process of experimenting with a facility which will employ both the MSW technology and algae technology with the goal of establishing a synergy which will make use of one of the less usable products of our MSW facilities to enhance the production of our algae facilities.

 Our MSW technology produces three primary products -- diesel fuel, jet fuel, and home heating fuel.  In certain areas (Florida and Arizona, for example) there is relatively insignificant demand for home heating fuel.  However, the heating fuel can be used to produce electricity required in the production of algae-diesel and provide the thermal gradients necessary for successful algae growth.

 We project that the use of our own fuel will result in a cost savings of between 4% and 7% of the energy requirements for the production of fuel-quality algae, giving us a significant competitive advantage in the emerging market for bio-fuels.


 BioConcept's initial effort is a bio-diesel plant in the United States of American fueled by MSW.  The plant will be designed by a proven company and will produce diesel fuel, aviation fuel and heating oil.  The diesel fuel will be purchased by Large Trucking Companies and Independent Truckers at a price significantly below the current market price for petroleum based diesel fuel.  The aviation fuel will be sold to local airport facilities for less than equivalent petroleum based fuel.  The heating oil will be sold on the open market or used by our firm for the production of electricity.

 Our business plan envisions the creation of a series of bio-diesel facilities, both MSW fueled and algae fueled, along the major east-west and north-south transportation corridors in the country.


BioConcept's has a diverse and strong management team. They have been assembled from many different fields. We have top level personnel from trucking, insurance, compliance, trading-brokerage, oil drilling and refining. All are committed to grow this venture to production capacities in various locations to meet the changing demand for energy in this country.


To quickly achieve production capacities to be able to address a major market share of the over the road transportation industry, then later becoming an alternative fuel source for shipping and rail. First and foremost the top two trucking companies have fuel needs of over 1 bgpy, this industry alone will be our biggest end user in the immediate future.


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